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How I registered over 40.000 photos copyright

We already mentioned briefly in another article the reasons that brought me to decide to register the copyright of over 42.000 photos as a Group of Published Photos with Eco service of the Usa Library of Congress in a previous article and listed several useful resources.
So now it's time to get to the core of the procedure.
Of course I don't assume any responsibility on what you read here and in the next articles, it's just the story of my experience and you shouldn't take it as a legal opinion, but just as my personal experience.
Also consider that procedures and laws are continuously changing, so this guide might be obsolete in the moment you read it.

Login screen of the Copyright registration procedureLogin screen of the Copyright registration procedure

Since I have a very limited budget, I had to find a way to register as many photos as possible together: I eventually found out that there is the possibility to register a 'Group of Published Photos' with an unlimited number of images, if they respect a series of requirements (See Compendium III 1116.1 ).
In particular if you hold the copyright of all the photos and they were published in the same year.
Part of the eligibility requirements in the CompendiumPart of the eligibility requirements in the Compendium
So what I did was to search for all my recent (a few years back) photos that were not published yet, and published them all together. This might be a little bit confusing, so I repeat: basically I could register together photos taken during several years as a Group of Published Photographs if they were published in the same calendar year. You are allowed to register photos taken in 2013 and 2015 in example, if you publish them for the first time ever, in the same year, 2016 in my case.
That's where the possibility of registering 40.000 photos came from, let's say it was a legal trick.
So I repeat: what I did was to search for all my photos that were not published yet, and published them all together, in order to register them as published in the same year.
I could have registered them as unpublished also, but then I should have paid a filing fee for each year they were taken, and not for each year they were published.
The distinction between published and unpublished photos is one of the most unclear subject, so you should read a lot about that before applying.
What I did to be sure for my images to be considered as published, was to upload all of them in Flickr with a caption inviting to contact me in case of interest to acquire a license, plus I created a basic website with a photo gallery with all the 40.000 photos and the same caption, and made the website accessible on the same date. It doesn't matter the size of the photo you are publishing, it can be also a small preview, since you are registering the artistic work, not the specific size you have published.
As of today the fee to register a group of published photos is 55$.
But since registering a group of published photos in the Usa is a special procedure, you have to contact the competent department before starting your application and they'll assign you a tutor for the first time. You will also have a limit of a maximum of 250 photos for the first application. If everything goes well, from the second one, you'll have no more count limit.
So basically you'll have to pay 110$ in order to have the possibility to register an unlimited number of photos, that in my case meant about 0.002$ per photo.
For our budget of low cost travellers, 110$ still is quite expensive, about a month of life and travels for one person, but I thought it could be a good investment for the future.
Don't forget as I already mentioned that prices and procedures can change at any time and that my suggestions don't constitute a legal consultation, so I assume no responsibility for it.
And you should also consider that I just finished my application, but still not received any answer if it will be accepted: the certification is usually coming months later for online registrations (about 8 months) [On January 2017, I received the certification, the registration was successful!]. But my first registration of 250 photos was accepted and I already have the certificate. The procedure is the same, so I have no reason to believe that also this several thousands photos application will be accepted.
Check my next article to find out more about my workflow and some free software to register you Group of Published Photos. 

Copyright registration of a Group of Published Photos: my workflow

I've already explained the general idea behind registering a big amount of photos as a Group of Published Photos in a single application with the Us Library of Congress. Now let's get a little bit more technical.
As always i don't assume any responsibility for the procedures explained here, you do everything at your own risk. Make sure to always have at least one backup copy of your photos.
What I did was to collect all of my published photos in a local folder (A): images from Flickr, Facebook, Twitter, NomadTravellers, my teenage blog, forums, picasa, paperback magazines, and whatever else I could remember I had ever published.
Then in another folder (B) I put a resized copy of every photo I took after a year of my choice. I didn't lose time to make a selection since the price for the registration of a group of Photographs is not dependent on the number of Photos, so I just selected all of my photos.
Then using several software to find duplicates I compared the two folders, and deleted all of the matching photos so that in B I would have left only photos from any year that were never published before.
This is more easily said than done, because there are different algorithm that can match images according to similarity. And several basic editing actions, including resizing, cropping, rotating, or putting a watermark that can severely influence the photo matching. In particular cropping images makes them almost impossible to match with their originals, so you should search manually for all of your cropped photos.

Awesome Photo Finder interfaceAwesome Photo Finder interface
Also there were so many false positive, in particular for dark photos like night skies, that you can't safely delete all the matches together. That meant hours and hours of boring work checking the result one by one to make sure they were real matches. I repeated this iteration with several pieces of software, until I couldn't find any match any more and I was sure enough there were no previously published photos on my folder B.

This is a non complete list of the free software that eased my job:

AllDup: it finds duplicates comparing filenames, dates and also content. I used it as the first one because it's fast, even if it's potential is limited mostly to filenames. It turned out to be extremely useful when I didn't change the original filename coming out of the camera.

Awesome Photo Finder: Can find duplicates by visual content, even if they are only similar and not exactly the same. The user interface is quite simple and not really friendly, but the engine is quite good. Can be downloaded also as a portable version.

DupeGure Picture Edition: Finds duplicates according to content. The user interface is good, and also the selection options and preview. Unfortunately it's extremely slow to populate the results and to scroll them.

Exiftool: I used this powerful tool to solve another problem that I faced while preparing my application: file format. In order to compare the photos, it is better to have all the images in Jpg. Converting tens of thousands of photos from Raw to Jpg was not an option, but I found a short-cut.
With Exiftool, a really powerful and free application, I could quickly extract the jpeg preview from the Raw file and even add the metadata from the original file.
First I selected the Raw files that didn't have already an extracted Jpeg. To do that I used AllDup, comparing filename but ignoring extension (ie. finding all duplicates according to filename only: 0001.raw and 0001.jpg were considered as duplicates).
Then with Exiftool I extracted the preview of the remaining Raw files, and automatically embedded the metadata. This is the command I used:

exiftool -if "$jpgfromraw" -b -jpgfromraw -w %d%f.jpg -execute -if "$previewimage" -b -previewimage -w %d%f.jpg -execute -tagsfromfile @ -srcfile %d%f.jpg -overwrite_original -common_args -r --ext jpg C:\Users\....

The folder at the end of the command should be the folder where you have your Raw files that you want the Jpg extracted from. The command -r includes also subfolders.

Another problem I faced was making sure to have a consistent naming structure and no duplicate names. In my previous camera the counting of the filename was from 0000 to 9999. So every 10.000 photos the filename was repeating and if put in the same folder images from different periods, an image would overwrite a photo with the same name but different content! To solve this problem I renamed the photos adding in front of their original name the date they were taken. This is the command I have used in Exiftool

exiftool -d %Y-%m-%d-%%f.%%e "-filename<CreateDate" -r D:\....

AF rename your files 1.1: The previous renaming with exiftool, was just a temporary filename, after the final selection was ready I renamed all of my file with a progressive number 00001.jpeg using this small but useful tool.

AF rename your files main windowAF rename your files main window

XnConvert: I then converted all the Jpegs into smaller files. Actually you better do this at the beginning, before running the Duplicate software, so that the matching process speeds up considerably.
Once again I used a free software, XnConvert, resizing my photos to 600x600 72dpi Jpeg Quality around 70%.

In the end I also manually and visually scanned all the selected 40.000 photos. In particular I looked for and deleted photos:

- In which I was appearing: unless it was a selfie or you used a tripod, it meant I didn't take the photo, so I was not owning the copyright of the photo (you might use a face detector software for that, but it wouldn't work when you are with your back towards the camera, and they are not yet reliable);

- Containing logos, brands, writings or other things that might be copyrighted;

- Notes that I sometimes take with my camera: computer screenshots, contact card, maps, etc.

For the registration you also need to do a list of filenames, titles and Published dates.
It's not time efficient to give real titles to 40.000 photos. There is also a distinction between Title and Filename. What I did was to make sure that filename and title would coincide, and I assigned a progressive number from 00001.jpg to 42000.jpg
So my file list would look something like this:


I still tried to automate as much as possible the work to list all the filenames.
You might easily do this in Libreoffice Calc (Free excel alternative).

Another option is to automatically create a list of the files inside a folder. You can do this by opening a command prompt and accessing the desired folder. Then paste this command:

dir /b > print.txt

This will create a file print.txt with a list of the filenames only (no paths, dates, etc) inside the selected directory. Here more details.

After filling up the online form on the Usa copyright service website and paying the fee, uploading a file deposit is quite straight forward. You can zip together several thousands of photos, up to a maximum filesize of 500MB. Then you can select and upload several files all together.
Unfortunately after a while (probably 120 min) the server is timing out, and asking you to click a button within 60 seconds to keep the session active. Of course I was not looking at the screen constantly, so that my session was expiring every time.

Timeout pop-up messageTimeout pop-up message
In this happens, if you selected 6 files and 4 were totally uploaded before the session would expire, then also those 4 files would be deleted after the window would close. So my suggestion is to select and upload the files one by one.
This would largely depend on your internet upload speed, but my experience was that after uploading about 2 files of 400MB, the 3rd would trigger an expired session.

I think that's enough for now. Of course this was not a full guide to register a group of published photos, more of a tips and tricks for people that are already into the procedure. In case you have any doubt, feel free to ask in the comments below, but consider that in no case my articles nor my comments have any legal value, and you are assuming the responsibility for following my suggestions.

Useful resources and links about Eco Copyright Registration

With this series of articles I?m not intending to make a full excursus on Copyright registration since there are already many different official and non official guides on that.
Below just a collection of links and resources to start up your education process on the procedure to register the Copyrights of your photographs in the USA.

Copyright registration screenshotCopyright registration screenshot

Many other links and resource I used myself, are not available anymore online, since they are constantly updated.

After having made yourself comfortable with the general procedure and content, you might want to know more about registering a group of published photographs and how I registered over 40.000 photos copyright in one single application and fee and the tools I used.

The best shooting modes for a hike: an introduction to outdoor photography

Hdr and tonemapped image created from 3 bracketed shots. Rhone Valley, SwitzerlandHdr and tonemapped image created from 3 bracketed shots. Rhone Valley, Switzerland

A pleasant hike in the nature is always a great moment for a session of Outdoor photography: conditions and subjects are so diverse, that it's possible to experiment with a variety of techniques and shooting modes.

In the next paragraphs will be introduced the best shooting modes to use while hiking.

- Landscape photography

Landscape Photography is probably the most common technique used while walking in nature.

Landscape photography: The crater of Mount Merapi, IndonesiaLandscape photography: The crater of Mount Merapi, Indonesia

It's essential is to keep an interesting composition. The environment is there to be used and included in the image: trees and leaves can become an interesting frame, while rivers and canyons can be used as leading lines to catch the attention of the observer. Including hiking companions or total strangers in the shot, can give a touch of mystery and create beautiful environmental portraits; options are endless and creativity is the limit.

A wide-angle lens, in example an 18 mm, is what is needed most of the times to include as much of the scenario as desirable. Aperture priority mode works well in this situation, with a large f-number set to increase the depth of field (DOF) and correctly focus the whole frame.

Environmental portrait in Meteora, GreeceEnvironmental portrait in Meteora, Greece

- Panoramic shooting

Panoramic photo shooting consist in rotating the camera around a pivot point while taking several overlapping images (about 25% on each side), that later will be recomposed into a single one at the computer.

The camera has to be set to Manual settings and focus, not to have unwanted light and focus differences in consecutive shots.

The choice of the lens is dependent on the subject: to portrait a general view of the surrounding environment, a wide lens is the best option; to obtain a panorama of a far away mountain chain, a telephoto lens is more appropriate. A tripod can help to keep the horizon horizontal and to allow the usage of smaller aperture to obtain a bigger DOF.

Panoramic view composed from 10 vertical shots of the Himalayan range seen from Poonhill, NepalPanoramic view composed from 10 vertical shots of the Himalayan range seen from Poonhill, Nepal

- High Dynamic range photography and photo bracketing

In situations with high light contrast where the bits of the camera are not enough to describe the amplitude of the light, the best solution is to take several shots of the same subject with different exposures, that can be combined later in an HDR image.

This process can be automated with the bracketing function available in most cameras. Usually 3 shots, one correctly exposed, one underexposed and one overexposed with 2 stops difference, are the standard settings. While not essential, since software can automatically align and crop the shots, a tripod can be used in these circumstances.

Hdr and tonemapped image created from 3 bracketed shots. Rhone Valley, SwitzerlandHdr and tonemapped image created from 3 bracketed shots. Rhone Valley, Switzerland

- Wildlife shooting

Often an outdoor trip is associated with encounters with wildlife, but animals in the wild are usually sensible to human presence and not easy to spot. That's why it's essential to have always the telephoto lens mounted and the camera accessible to shoot even the shiest animal appearing just for a few seconds in the field of view.

A fast speed and wide aperture are usually the most common choices to focus on the subject, detaching it from the blurred background, and to avoid camera shaking. ISO sensitivity should be the lowest possible that is producing sharp images.

Since animals are usually moving around, it's important to select the Continuous focus mode.

Other special techniques like Panning and Trap focus can be used after some practice.

Panning technique applied to wildlife photography: Pink flamingos in Camargue, FrancePanning technique applied to wildlife photography: Pink flamingos in Camargue, France

- Moving water and slow shutter speed photography

While hiking in nature a photographer can expect to meet several water sources to experiment with slow shutter speed photography: a sturdy tripod is again essential.

The best shooting mode is Manual, to control not only the shutter speed, but also the DOF. If you are not too comfortable with Manual settings, Shutter priority will also work well considering that the aperture will be automatically closed by the camera. Good starting parameters can be 1 second exposure, f/22 and ISO 100, that according to the light conditions can be modified consequently. Also to remember that slower shutter speed will produce a more blurred, silky water in streams, rivers and waterfalls.

A Neutral density filter can be a life saver in case of bright light, or to obtain a shallow focus. A polarizing filter can be used in any situations to achieve more intense colors and delete unwanted glares and reflections.

Waterfall in Plitvice Lakes National Park, CroatiaWaterfall in Plitvice Lakes National Park, Croatia

Since it's not possible to cover every existing technique in a single article we leave to the reading photographer the curiosity to expand its possibilities. Astrophotography can be used to shoot clear skyes and stars at night, producing star trails; plenty of insects and flowers can be found to experiment with macro photography; time-lapse technique can be employed for a particular project to show the weather changing or a flower blossoming. Each photographer will specialize in one or more of these techniques and bring the necessary equipment to turn his outdoor adventure in a great occasion for a photo session.

Northern Light in Olderdalen, NorwayNorthern Light in Olderdalen, Norway

 

Natural looking HDR image tutorial with SNS-HDR

The village of Riomaggiore, tone mapped in SNS-HDR from 3 bracketed shotsThe village of Riomaggiore, tone mapped in SNS-HDR from 3 bracketed shots

This is a beginner tutorial on how to create a natural looking HDR image with SNS-HDR software. You should read also this introduction if you want to know how I ended up abandoning the free Luminance HDR software and starting using SNS-HDR.
A thank you to Sebastian Nibisz, the developer of the software, that gently offered me a copy to test.


In this guide we will see the basic interface of the program and the initial workflow, at a beginner-intermediate level: I'm supposing you are already familiar with bracketing and HDR imaging, since I won't explain this here.

Let's first see how the workspace is organized. There is an horizontal toolbar on top with the following commands: open and save a file, open in an external editor, batch and series process and colour profiles management. Then there are two sidebars: note that the positions of the different toolbars can be customized and they can be docked anywhere.
By default on the left there are the preset profile, and the masking interface. On the right the "Light" and "Color" panes. Other tabs available are History, Curves, Vignette, Histogram and Navigator.
On the bottom left if a slider to set the zoom level.

Workspace in SNS-HDRWorkspace in SNS-HDR

 By clicking the pin on top right of each pane, it is possible to minimize the toolbar. By dragging a tab it can be docked in one of the suggested positions, moving the pane over the corresponding arrow.

Docking a window in SNS-HDRDocking a window in SNS-HDR

A new project can be started with the "open image" icon and by selecting as many photos as needed: the extra power of SNS-HDR is that not only it allows to create tone mapped images from 3+ bracketed photos, but it's even possible to do it from a single frame, with impressive results. Jpeg, Tiff and Raw are all supported, even in single frame mode, despite the last one is clearly giving the widest dynamic range. On the "Open image" windows it's possible to reduce the size of the imported picture by a factor 1 (original size) or 2,3, etc. up to 10x: this is speeding up the initial loading and calculation process, since it is time consuming. I usually use 4x to create images for the web, but this depends also on the size of the photo fed into the program.

A trick for Windows users is to press "alt+ctrl+del", select SNS process and with a right click to set a "lower priority". This way while waiting for the photos to be processed, it's possible to use the PC for other tasks without visible speed limitation. Note that despite I've never had any problem with this trick, it might make your computer unstable, so I don't assume any responsibility.


It's also possible to denoise the input images, but there is not much control over the process. It's possible to select only a strength from 1 to 9. The noise reduction function is not working with Jpeg images.

Starting a new project in SNS-HDRStarting a new project in SNS-HDR

 After the initial calculations are finished, the tone mapped image we'll be visualized with the last used preset profile. There is no possibility to save the raw HDR image before the tone mapping process. Clicking on the image with the right click is showing the default image, to easily compare it with the actual result.

Showing the default image in SNS-HDRShowing the default image in SNS-HDR

 As a first step the best thing to do is to select a preset profile that we think is closer to what we are expecting. After we can proceed to fine tune the result with the sliders on the right side. It's possible to add also personal preset profiles, so that the tuning process is usually quite fast compared to other HDR softwares. The sliders are quite self-explicative, and after playing a little bit with each one it's quite intuitive to understand how they impact the image. This is because the result is updated instantly in the tone mapped image.

Selecting the "H" next to some of the slidebars, only the lights are influenced, turning in example "Brightness" into "Lights Brightness" and so on.

Default saved profileDefault saved profile

 With the preset profile that I've created previously, the orange colour looks too much saturated, while it looks well balanced in the rest of the photo. I can change this parameter also selectively, by creating a mask from the bottom left toolbar.
In this case I created the mask, highlighted with a green colour, with the paint bucket option, that is automatically matching the color of the selected point. Unfortunately there is no control over the threshold, so often this selection input is not successful. With the left click new selections are added, with the right click they are subtracted.

Masking in SNS-HDRMasking in SNS-HDR

 Once the mask is created, it is possible to modify the parameters that are going to influence only the masked part, in this case the saturation. We can also activate and deactivate the mask to see the difference.
In this case instead of using the mask, I could have obtained a similar result by working on the "Lights Saturation" selecting the "H". Another option would have been instead of using the saturation slider, to modify the saturation value selectively through the colour spectrum below.

Reduced saturation in the skyReduced saturation in the sky

 The image is almost ready, but I'm still not satisfied with the colour of the boat, that seems too dark. To brighten it up, I've created another mask, using the second method available: the brush. The brush size on the screen is constant, but it's possible to modify its influence by changing the zoom level. We can paint the area that needs to be changed with a solid color, or with the "intelligent selection", the star icon, that is highlighting only the colors in a close range to the selected one.

Masking the boat and increasing the brightessMasking the boat and increasing the brightess

 Once again we make our changes on the slidebars to increase the brightness and the image is ready to be exported as a Jpeg, a Tiff or a SNS format. The proprietary format is exporting all the parameters and the masks settings.

Final tone mapped HDR in SNS-HDRFinal tone mapped HDR in SNS-HDR

If you are willing to try SNS-HDR, there are a Pro and a Lite version, the only difference being the batch and series feature. The batch feature is using the last selected preset profile, while the series feature give the possibility to insert different parameters for each photo.

SNS-HDR: a professional HDR software to create attractive images

An house in Camargue tonemapped from a single frame with SNS-HDRAn house in Camargue tonemapped from a single frame with SNS-HDR

I will start with my verdict: I'm just impressed with the fast and effective way to create natural looking HDR images with the software SNS-HDR.
Now let's go back to the mental process: recently I find out that I wasn't satisfied anymore with the results I was obtaining with my previous HDR and tone mapping software, the freeware Luminance HDR (previously known as qtpfsgui).

I always try to support open source software whenever I can, but the development of Luminance HDR has been stuck for long time, and it has lost all of its advantages, except the price, compared to its paid competitors. The workflow was complicated, often involving the creation of tone mapped images using different alghorithms and then merging them togheter with an external editing software. While a good output was possible, it was always requiring a big effort and a long time to obtain it. And the results were often having a fairy tales look, that might be a good feature for somebody but not for me, in particular if you don't have much control over that strange look. And the preview image, dependent also on selected output size, wasn't updated instantly while moving the slidebars, so a few extra steps of trial and error were necessary. On the example below is a very appealing image obtained with some effort in HDR Luminance, but far from having a natural look.

A tea house, tone mapped with Luminance HDRA tea house, tone mapped with Luminance HDR

So I first tested Photomatix, probably the most famous piece of software to create tone mapped images. While the results were better than with Luminance HDR, I wasn't still satisfied with the control of halos and the obvious difference between the preview and the final result. It is not helping much if you can't have a realistic preview and you have to guess how to move the slidebars. Also in this case it was more of a trial and error process, even if less complicated than with Luminance HDR.

Photomatix preview on the left, and final result on the rightPhotomatix preview on the left, and final result on the right

So while doing more researches in Google, I stumbled upon SNS-HDR: it was possible to download a working trial version, with the limitation of a screenshot in the saved image, and so I downloaded it right away. SNS-HDR website is in polish, but it's possible to select a different language and have an automatic translation in English; the software instead is perfectly translated in English. It's still not as known as its competitors, so probably they will have to invest a little bit in marketing, as the polish website is suggesting, because it really deserves a better visibility.

After testing a little bit the software, I was really enthusiastic to see how easily I could obtain a natural looking tone mapped HDR with little effort. I couldn't believe I was able to "restore" some of my old images that I knew had potential but I was never able to render properly. That's how I ended up contacting Sebastian Nibisz, the developer of SNS-HDR, asking for a copy of the software to use and test further.

Not only I was impressed by the results obtained starting from a batch of 3 or more frames, but the output was impressive even using a single photo to tone map. The software is able to recover an impressive amount of details and to increase the dynamic range.

I believe that SNS-HDR has the potential to become not only the best HDR software around, but also a standalone software to develop Raw, if the road map of the developers will go in that direction.
If you want to know more, and start testing the software, read my beginner tutorial on how to create a natural looking HDR images with SNS-HDR.

The village of Riomaggiore, created from 3 bracketed photos in SNS-HDRThe village of Riomaggiore, created from 3 bracketed photos in SNS-HDR

 

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Davide Vadal? and Otilia Lefter

We are Davide and Otilia, an international couple with itchy feet, living a non conventional life traveling around the world and learning everyday something new....
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